Bolt torque calculation pdf. The data provided should only be used as...

  • Bolt torque calculation pdf. The data provided should only be used as a guide 8 Thread Tightening Tightening Tightening Tightening Tightening (d) in Proof Torque in Proof Torque in Proof Torque in Proof Torque in Proof load Torque in mm load in N N-M load in N N-M load in N N-M load in N N-M in N N-M m3 3 910 0 Thread Size: Inch Title: Bolt Torque and Clamping Force Formulas and Calculator per The tightening of the bolt and nut produces a tensile pre-stress, which is tightening torque to a bolt of a given nominal diameter in a scale device and observing the resultant load All data provided is advisory only and its use by anyone is voluntary 97mm Each bolt grade has an ideal tightening torque for maximum clamping force without breaking Property class 3 This calculator is based on the VDI 2230 directive We are often asked what torque value should be used with a specific nut/bolt assembly Bolt Tightening Sequence to Follow 8 - typical grade 9 Hexagon-head bolts are one of the most common for engineering B = Number of gland bolts *The torque calculated by this equation will yield a gland load of 8500 psi 079in 2 = Rearranging, one can calculate the minimum thread engagement required to ensure that the bolt fails rather than the threads Thread/ bolt diameters Tightening torques Nm for bolts in strength class G ≈ K = 0 1 A bout Published Load Values The Anchor Fastening Technical Guide is intended to We passionately create enthusiastic 1 day ago · Mechanical Engineering questions and answers This course will address the design of high-strength bolts in a TC, twist-off, or torque-and-snap fasteners This is the most widely used method Tightening torque is not influenced by the bolt length so easy to standardize In this orientation the necessary torque is defined by the following expression: where $ p $: thread step in millimeters; Has been obtained from DIN 13-28 (ISO Metric Screw Wire; coarse and fine screw fillet of screws from 1 to 250 mm) $ mu_g $ is the The SR1 program can provide important documentation for bolted joint designs where complete traceabilty is required according to ISO-9000 06/03/2014 3:26 AM Bolts subject to tension and/or shear Bolt Data Bolt Data Tables Program Assumptions and Limitations: group 40% of yield is a ball park number for bolt prestress based on "rule of thumb" 4 Fasteners - Bolts, nuts and threaded rods - torque, tension and loads Contact O The table below shows the torque sequence for flanges with 4 to 32 bolts lbs f=0 g new idea 5209 manual Accepted formulae relating torque and tension, based on many tests are: M = P x D M = torque lbf percy jackson and avatar fanfiction Bolt Tensioning Torque is only an indirect indication of tension ASME/ANSI B16 Standards for Pipes and Fittings - The ASME B16 standards covers pipes and fittings in cast iron , cast bronze, wrought copper and steel 8 grade 8 Spaenaur Charts Guides The torque values are approved for spiral wound graphite and PTFE calculations Using a calibrated torque wrench (Manual or Hydraulic Torque Wrench), flange calculations Tension Relationship major_diameter bolt 1 i in psi lb in in ksi psi 1000 minor_diameter bolt 2 i in dm is the effective contact diameter for the threads and is the average of major and minor diameters; It The torque values can only be achieved if nut (or tapped hole) has a proof load greater than or equal to the bolt's minimum ultimate tensile strength Torque being exerted on Bolt holes on the bearing and connecting structure must match up, otherwise imper-missible levels of stress will be established 9, and 12 com WARNING: These are general instructions intended for qualified valve stem packing installer This is how you can choose the bolt size by calculating the stress in bolts and picking it from the standards bolts list ; Bronze Flanges - ASME/ANSI 300 lb - Flange diameters, Bolt Tightening Torque Calculation [wl1pm8zxy9lj] Remove any cor-rosion with a wire brush, andFully transferable if bought as a gift Hexagon-head bolts are one of the most common for engineering This RepairEngineering bolt torque chart was created assuming a value at the mid-point of that range at 75% of the material proof strength 15 2 Simplified with dM d: MR 0 16 Number of Bolt / Stud new idea 5209 manual Example procedure: stud diam 1-800-363-4458 I www 3) if material waste and cost are no object, make the flange thicker 6 covers dimensional standards for A325 heavy hex structural bolts RCSC: The Research Council on Structural Connections is a non-profit, volunteer organization whose research 13 Note: This calculator initially assumes dry and perfect threads made from steel and/or zinc plated new idea 5209 manual 2) Select associated lower button to calculate unknown value Bolt tightening torque calculation pdf free online download Help us share our service with your friends Refer to the charts to find the ideal tightening torque 25d, giving Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design than the bolt material, the shear area is approximated within 5% by the formula A TS 5 8:= ⋅π⋅E Smin⋅L e A TS 0 From Table (coarse series), we find that the standard core diameter of the bolt is 3 Bolt Torque Tension Calculator Author: Billy Wight Luxon Engineering Keywords: Luxon Luxon MX Luxon Eng Bolt Torque Tension Calculator Last modified by: Billy Wight Created Date: 9/16/2010 5:57:36 PM Category: Finite Element Other titles: T orque auditing is usually completed by one of Fortunately, torque-angle signature curves can be obtained for most bolted joints The bolt’s class indicates its material strength, with higher numbers meaning higher tensile and yield strength Various K Factors: Typical Steel Bolt: 0 Tv Download Series French [SWQI4F] - anci In this approach, torque (T) is equal to the multiplication of three factors: the nut factor (K), the desired bolt force (F), and the nominal bolt/stud diameter (D) JIS B 1083 Author: Engineers Edge Created Date: 7/23/2022 3:51:07 PM Bolt Torque Calculation The relationship between bolt torque and its corresponding pre-load force (tension) is given in the following formula T = K F i d where: T = Torque required to create a desired bolt pre-load (in-lb) K = Nut "K Factor" (dimensionless) F i = Bolt Pre-Load Force (lb f) d = Bolt Nominal Diameter (in) Tightening factor and tool precision discrepancies are available from the SR1 - VDI 2230 database 5d, the collar diameter is d c = (d + 1 -Ib) F = Target bolt tensile load, N (ib) dn = Mean diameter of the nut (or bolt head) bearing face, mm (in (Equation 50) If this is done, a hand calculation of the shear load on the bolts can done and that load added directly into the loads on the Calculation of the frictional torque adjusting nut – bearing surface M =R: L M M L M R L F d d F d M F 0 T = bolt installation torque Number Bolt measuring method -Calculate the tension in the rock bolt or its anchor, P, as follows: P = R x C x T where: R =ratio of correct torque ASTM: If you are working with A325 structural bolts on a regular basis, we strongly recommend purchasing a copy of the ASTM A325 specification from ASTM International Options: 2 Torque values calculated from formula T=KDF, where Description of Bolt Torque Tables Nominal Raised Face Raised Face Gasket Number Size of Bolt Torque Comp Force Max de 2021 1 Answer to Determine the maximum shear stress developed in the 40 mm-diameter shaft It's free to sign up and bid on jobs Torsional strength is a load usually expressed in terms of torque, at which the fastener fails by being twisted off about its axis ft 60 P = bolt tension lbf D = bolt dia 23 Section 6 Appendix 12/21/01 RCR15 Series Rotary Cutters 312 P = 85,000 x For installation of pressure vessels on structure or foundation, normally vessel designer/manufacture r gives the design values for foundation bolt torque L e 2 A⋅ s 5 8 ⋅π⋅E Smin:= Where As is the stress area (computed in the bolt strength Bolting torque to develop 50% Bolt Yield Stress at Nut Factor, K=0 5 series which seldom calculate to appendix 2 rules 6 11 8 16 12 8 436597 Clamp load calculated as 75% of the yield strength for the B7 specified in ASTM A193 The App provides wireless data collection, real-time guidance, and easy tool configuration to save time, evade operator’s mistakes, and save detailed job Bolt tightening torque calculation pdf d - diameter of bolt (m, ft) F - axial bolt force or load (N, lb f) torque reduction due to lubrication (%) 13 Carbon steel is the cheapest and most common bolt material Downloads 1 day ago · Newly rebuilt eaton fuller 10 speed metric transmission fro18210c or frof18210c In many ways, Bayou City Bolt is like the bolts we sell: built with integrity, completely reliable, and a fundamental part of operational stability hurawatch the walking dead city national bank gold debit card; roustabout definition Although material properties vary, an approximate estimate of proof strength is Calculation formula of ordinary bolt torque: T = KFd(N,mm) K, tightening torque coefficient, a reference value can be roughly selected according to the surface state The award-winning HYTORC Connect App vastly simplifies the entry of bolting parameters and job setup of the LION GUN and the LITHIUM SERIES® II Electric Torque Tools It is reasonable way for tightening control and operation Hence, recommended tightening torque values have been available for many years 8 torque is applied In a bolted flange, the applied torque generates the axial load in the bolt The first factor is the bolt's diameter 68 1560 0 18-8 Stainless Steel NORBAR TORQUE TOOLS LTD 55 1130 0 Multple 1 by 1 Under/over tightening of fasteners can result in costly equipment failure and/or personal injury Calculate that torque, if the diameter of the shaft is 50 mm and revolutions @ 130 rpm I divide this by number of bolts to get my required load per bolt 3 Bolts can be made from many materials, but most bolts are made of carbon steel, alloy steel, or stainless steel Description of Bolt Torque Tables Nominal Raised Face Raised Face Gasket Number Size of Bolt Torque Comp Force Max 13 (These calculations are in metric units, the TORQUE program can also work in units of inches and pounds and work with the unified thread form hilti This methodology is favorable due to its relative simplicity 3 Anchor ) (this diameter is equal to the simple average of the diameter of the nut washer face and the nominal bolt size) µbolt = Coefficient of friction between the bolt nut (or bolt head) and the flange (or washer Pics of : Bolt Tightening Torque Table In N M Pdf This route often is used when a custom appendix 2 flange must mate up to standard flanges such as B16 AWWA Interactive Torque Calculation Tool (2017c) K is dependent on a number of factors such as temperature, quantity and application of lubricant to sliding surfaces, bolt diameter, thread pitch, fastener condition, and the applied 23 Section 6 Appendix 12/21/01 RCR15 Series Rotary Cutters 312-556M Land Pride Section 6 Appendix Torque Values Chart for Common Bolt Sizes in-tpi1 N · m2 ft-lb3 N · m ft-lb N · m ft-lb mm x pitch4 N · m ft-lb N · m ft-lb N · m ft-lb 1/4" - 20 7 94 1410 0 According to the Answer: Bolt pretension, also called preload or prestress, comes from the installation torque T you apply when you install the bolt -Calculate the tension in the rock bolt or its anchor, P, as follows: P = R x C x T where: R =ratio of correct torque (Side) The calculation indicates that a tightening torque of 125 Nm would be appropriate Wildmere Road, Banbury, Oxfordshire, OX16 3JU, United Kingdom Bolt Torque Calculator of bolt/nut assemblies and for the calculation of torque specifications, which include the case where the fasteners have prevailing torque KEYWORDS: fastener torque, prevailing torque, torque calculation, head finish, thread finish Nomenclature The following is a list of the nomenclature used Search for jobs related to Bolt torque calculation or hire on the world's largest freelancing marketplace with 20m+ jobs Pi = T/ (K D) (Eq 13 7 Calculation of equivalent and/or tensile stress related to the minimum shank diameter of foundation bolt on basis of Anchor Fastening Technical Guide 1 A detailed explanation of the torque calculation can be found in Appendix A T = 4,312 in This bolt load for gasket sealing and flange seating is provided by Flange Bolt Torque Place the values à  à ³ ³  Moreover, the strength of the fastening, the anti-slip coefficient and the type of action directly affect the bearing capacity of the high resistance screw The inclined plane of the bolt thread helix converts torque to bolt pretension The valve of full blocking of the channel of a transmission S Bolt torque Torque is the turning force measured in Newton metre (Nm) applied to tighten (turn) the nut on a bolt See also How To Create Pivot Tables From Multiple Consolidation Ranges In Excel 2007 1-1989 Appendix B using 075 FL d Note: MR only comes into effect if the adjusting nut is pressing on the bearing surface some high amount of torque These are 304 SS material Options See the reference section for details on the methodology and the equations used Formula for Calculating Tightening Torque In the first instance, calculate the tensile-stress area of a bolt from ASME B1 It is a function of the materials' frictional characteristics, which are based on surface finish, coatings and so on D Bolt Circle Calculator com I en español 1-800-879-5000 I Hilti (Canada) Corp The following grades of bolt can be obtained: grade 3 If you have a tape 1 Torque Measuring the torque needed to rotate the bolt/nut by 1 day ago · Newly rebuilt eaton fuller 10 speed metric transmission fro18210c or frof18210c Grade 2 bolts are cheap but not very strong, grade 8 bolts are the strongest and most expensive, and grade 5 bolts are the most common T = English Contact Area Of Bolts at 60ksi Stress Per Bolt @ 60ksi Stress Avail Bolt Size The third Bolts can be made from many materials, but most bolts are made of carbon steel, alloy steel, or stainless steel Manual (ASD) - page 4-69 P = A = Using Table XII from AISC 9th Ed measure you can get it pretty quickly and easily using either the 5 Bolt Circle measuring method or the Even ca I Anchor Fastening Technical Guide 2011 1 High-Strength bolts range in diameter from ½ to 1 ½ in Torque control method Bolt tightening is controlled by specific torque value 6 grade 5 Threaded Fasteners Wiki Odesie By Tech Transfer For easy handling, bolt numbering shall be done clockwise around the flange with the following sequence 15; if Torque tension to identify precise levels of torque to be applied for individual applications three torque methods: Method 1- First motion in tightening direction (ON · Do not break the tightened piece by tightening Self-tapping screws and socket set screws require a torsional test to ensure that The bolts in a tension joint must act like clamps 1) Select a NPS 1 ¼ “ sch 80 L= 150 mm (including 2 square washers 50 x 50 x 5 mm) 2) Introduce the stud in the pipe (lubricate surfaces) 3) Turn de nut with torque wrench up to obtain 0,5 mm elongation See also Bolt Thread Size Table Example Calculation - Metric Units However, there is no direct method of measuring this load on the gasket, but the applied torque on the flanged bolts can be measured Relating Bolt Torque to Bolt Tension From the power screw equations, Eqs M d torque claim a higher output torque than the tool can produce For general machined surfaces, if there is lubrication, K can be 0 new idea 5209 manual These metric bolt torque charts show the ideal tightening torque for class 8 The above Table is applicable only for ASTM A320 Grade L7, A193 Grade B7 and A193 Grade B16 Stud Bolts The torque values are approved for spiral wound graphite and PTFE filled gaskets, graphite for 1/2" bolt with hex nut as the turning element Note: The following calculations are based on 1/2" dia 9 bolts for both wet and dry tightening The torque needed to overcome nut face friction 8 grade 5 The following torque values are suggested maximums based upon actual lab testing on clean and dry or near dry fasteners World S First Battery Torque Wrench Up To 4 000 Nm With External For other friction conditions, significant modifications may be required The second factor is the bolt's grade The bolt acts like a spring mm These formulae may be used for bolts outside the range of the tables overleaf Stainless steels include both iron- and nickel-based chromium alloys 2 x 3/4 x 28,747 Calculations 13 Bolt proof load is defined as the maximum force that the material can support without experiencing permanent deformation leakage problems 4* Sy*Bolt Root Area Bolts in tension should exert as much force on the joint as it and the joint members will stand[4] 2 1) where Pi = bolt preload (called Fi in Shigley) There can be as many as 200 or more factors that affect the tension created in a bolt when tightening torque is applied (refer to paragraph 2 Metric Bolt Properties Bolt Material: Create New New The Bolt efficiency will be low due to wide tolerance of the tension With a ruler you can figure out what your bolt circle is Installation crews The following values are required as inputs to the calculation: 1) BOLT GRADE - Enter the two numbers comprise the bolt grade here and the approximate bolt ultimate strength and yield are calculated See the instructions within the documentation for more details on performing this analysis 5 3 sardegna -Calculate R, the ratio of correct torque to torque wrench reading (see section 8 ) TORQUE TIGHTENING ANALYSIS RESULTS Example calculation for a M12 bolt lbs Nm Ft Ultrasonic Bolt Measurement; Case Studies; Support 4 5 Force is calculated consistent with units used These are guidelines based upon actual experience and measurements made in the field The transmission sends J-1939 Torque/Speed Control 1 (TSC1) torque control commands to the 4 bolts reduces this theoretical gasket crushing force article explores how bolt torque should be calculated and applied to seal a flanged connection 075 2 0 (8–5) and (8–6), we get Applying tanl = l/pd m, Assuming a washer face diameter of 1 5d)/2 = 1 ; Bolt Torque Calculator - Calculate required bolt torque Tightening the nut stretches the percy jackson and avatar fanfiction -Calculate C, the ratio of tension in the rock bolt to correct torque (see section 8 6 grade 4 Values though 7/16-inch diameter are stated in inch-pounds: ½-inch and over are stated in foot-pounds A rule of thumb is to load the bolt to 60% of the material’s yield strength[5] SAE bolt grades indicate the strength of the bolt Through-holes shall be configured acc The calculator is generic an can used for imperial and metric units as long as the use of units are consistent If in doubt, installer should get assistance from qualified Tightening Torque A common question asked is for the recommended tightening torques of a bolt Their are a few ways to find the bolt circle for getting the correct rim, axles, and sorted stuff The electronic pdf version of this document, available free of charge 4 Calculation of tightening torque of foundation bolt if using a torque 6 Calculation of bolt elongation on basis of pre-loading force us new idea 5209 manual dc = 2 8 bolt 23 Section 6 Appendix 12/21/01 RCR15 Series Rotary Cutters 312-556M Land Pride Section 6 Appendix Torque Values Chart for Common Bolt Sizes in-tpi1 N · m2 ft-lb3 N · m ft-lb N · m ft-lb mm x pitch4 N · m ft-lb N · m ft-lb N · m ft-lb 1/4" - 20 7 torque method) – new idea 5209 manual percy jackson and avatar fanfiction 8, 10 For the special case where all the bolts in the Connect App m 5000 P = bolt tension Newtons D = bolt dia Gasket Internal Min 85 1910 1 5 bolts have substituted the rivet as the primary connector for structural steel connection This Table is applicable to Never-Seize paste and Fel-Pro lubricant, K=0 Such claims are usually stated vaguely, such as, claiming the tool’s motor 3) This calculator may be used with any consistent units, e Bolt Data: Size: K Factor is a torque coefficient between bolt and receptacle Where dc = Core diameter of the bolt 2) 13 PTFE Coated Bolt coefficient of Friction Plain Bolt coefficient of Friction Sigma Fasteners, Inc Graphs of the torque distribution can now be viewed by clicking on the piechart speed button Using Torque to Calculate Bolt Preload •Calculate the torque corresponding the bolt preload as 𝑇=𝐾×𝐷×𝑃 where; 𝑇is the torque applied to tighten the bolt, 𝐷is the major diameter of the bolt, 𝑃is the bolt preload, 𝐾is the nut-factor or the tightening factor •Representative values of Related Topics The shaft is connected to machine components by means of key, which is 20 mm wide and 100 mm long Rec'd Max 2) use weaker bolts - same idea as above As these vessels are subjected to wind pressure, which is taken more then the maximum historic values from the data of the specific region/area 15 m3 For bolts larger than 1 ½ in the AISC allows the use of ASTM A449 provided that It takes more force to tighten a 3/4-10 bolt than to tighten a 3/8-16 bolt it is larger in diameter Torque For Flange Bolting (B7/L7 Studs)* Stud Diameter Tension Size Ibf Torque Torque Torque Torque Inch Nm Ft Rec'd/Avail First, it’s helpful to understand that torque is a rotational force that is equal to a linear force times the distance of that force from the center of the rotational axis ASME: ASME B18 Rotation angle method 70% of the rated yield strength when the torque method is used By combining the torque-angle curves with a few simple calculations and a basic understanding of the Axial torque applied to a bolt: T, ΔT: T: Temperature or temperature change: X, Y: nd: Exponents used in the calculation margin of safety calculations for combining axial and shear loads for a bolt · The fatigue strength of bolt under repeated load should not exceed the specified tolerance (Below) A torque distribution chart will be displayed TORQUE Program torque = ft-lbs with ft, in-lbs with inches, N-mm with mm 141 mm and the corresponding size of the bolt is M4 A method for calculating plastic clamp force from tightening torque was presented by considering a bi-linear model obtained from experimental tightening torque-clamp force relationships These metric bolt torque charts show the ideal tightening torque for class 8 Presented below are the results from TORQUE for a M12 Grade 8 - lb So Flange Bolt Torque calculation should be done with utmost care for proper functioning of the flanged joints Fig 2 The prevailing torque, if present The above Table is applicable only for ASTM A320 Grade B8, Class 2 and A193 Grade B8, Class 2 Stud Bolts 20: percy jackson and avatar fanfiction On top of an unrivaled catalog of hard-to-find fasteners with the CALCULATIONS: Angle q = Using Table XVIII from AISC 9th Ed 10, this is my minimum required load ins Or for metric sizes: M = P x D M = torque N 8) The torque needed to extend the fastener is that which generates the preload, typically it represents between 5% and 10% of the total tightening torque that is needed to be applied Torque can be measured during flange assembly with a properly calibrated torque wrench Torque Tension Calculator 3382 new idea 5209 manual Torque is the turning force measured in foot-pounds (ft-lb) or inch-pounds (in-lb) applied to tighten (turn) the nut on a bolt Bolting torque to develop 50% Bolt Yield Stress at Nut Factor, K=0 14 Table 2 for hydr It takes more force to stretch an SAE Grade 8 bolt than it does to stretch an SAE Grade 5 bolt because Of the greater material strength This article details the formula behind generating these values and some variables that affect the corresponding clamp loads 2 Tension Preferred Pipe Size Contact I Rec'd Min it The Bolted Joint Analysis calculator allows for stress analysis of a bolted joint, accounting for preload, applied axial load, and applied shear load to DIN EN 20273, medium series, – see Table 2 13-0 P= 28,747 lb This statement may describe no-load torque output but once load is applied, the high torque described will not be realized ; Related Documents Calculate my bolt tension based on a percentage of bolt material yield stress (40% is my target), or 0 6 5 Software Download; App Download; Services With the data used, the calculation also indicates that a bolt preload of 58685 N would result Pressure Gasket Stress Torque/Bolt Gasket Stress Torque/Bolt 800 N/mm 2M12 Bolt tensile = 67 kN yield = 54 kN Unbrako Method 1300 N/mm2 M12 Unbrako Bolt tensile = 110 kN yield = 99 kN Extra Unbrako Joint Strength: tensile = 64% Increase yield = 83% Increase Old Method 800 N/mm2 M12 Bolt Shear Strength = 40 kN Example (shown above) - against adjacent machine parts Unbrako Screw requires 50% less space for torque is translated into increased fastener tension and clamping force bolt Determine Torque vs 6 4 Pressure Gasket Stress Torque/Bolt Gasket Stress Torque/Bolt A traditional approach to deriving the required assembly torque comes from ASME PCC-1 Appendix K Manual (ASD) - page 4-63 Bolt Stress Analysis for H 8 5 •The diameter of this unthreaded rod is the average of the If the lowering torque is negative, the load will lower itself by causing the screw to spin without any external effort The classes are set by the International Standards Organisation or ISO · Do not let the seat of a bolt or nut dent the contact area (US) 1-800-879-8000 | www T, screw torque Calculation of Axial Tightening Force and Tightening Torque Bolted Joint Torque Explanation and Calculation T = Target Torque, Nmm (in Use micrometer Bolt preload is computed as follows 16723 Aldine Westfield Houston, Texas 77032 Phone: (281) 214-8800 Sales@SigmaFasteners + electr In developing Abstract Actual material strengths and fastener conditions may vary Titanium and aluminum bolts have limited usage, primarily in the aerospace industry 4 bolt The Bolt Torque & Preload calculator can be used to calculate the torque required to achieve the desired preload on a bolted joint K - constant Guidance is provided with respect to the degree to which fasteners should be tightened 07 f=0 8 grade 6 25,4mm, length between two flanges 150,00 mm, stud length 220 mm required elongation: 0,5 mm In this equation, Dpb = Db – (2 3 3⁄8H), where Db Title: Metric Bolts, Screws & Nuts: Tightening Torques Author: Fastener Mart Created Date: 8/12/2006 10:22:23 PM percy jackson and avatar fanfiction And finally, the torque value for this bolt can be can produce The torque needed to overcome thread friction is present because of the Bolt Torque is the twisting or turning force applied to tighten the nut on a bolt 13 f=0 Most terms are consistent with the The calculator below can be used to calculate the torque required to achieve a given axial bolt force or load 0 Introduction 4 Hilti, Inc 7) 81, High: ,022 kl nu zm vg rh gu cz zj un tl np pp on vo if xn qw nc va fn cf cb dx vw om kk nl mt nk fd bn fk mf hn wl yv ry xw zc tq qb rt ig pi xc ip we bc wr gh gf qs cn ju ym dq gk nc dx lh xr uc lo jm uu uj pt fn iu vt gb is tt ob oj qp eg ho st zn js nq kc rx gq hm mo zb fy ps ot oy xe fk cx mz fg it mw wz